National Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Trees: Eastern Region; Elbert L. Little; 1980; Knopf, New York City; 714 pgs.; ISBN: 978-0394507606.
Recommended - A good book for the beginning student. This book is organized by leaf type and has a fairly easy-to-use key that will lead you to the basic kind of tree (oak, birch, etc). The descriptions will then generally let you make a species-level identification. It has very good color pictures of leaves, bark, flowers, and fruit and it has interesting historical/cultural comments on many species. This book points out plants that are alien introductions.
Woody Plants of Maryland; Russell G. Brown and Melvin L. Brown ; 1972; Port City Press, Baltimore, MD; 347 pgs.; ISBN: B001LIPH26.
Highly Recommended - This is the definitive source for identification of woody plants in Maryland. It is not simple to use but the key will get you to an identification. Too large to carry conveniently in the field.
A Field Guide to Eastern Trees: Eastern United States and Canada, Including the Midwest (Peterson Field Guides); George A. Petrides; 1998; Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston; 448 pgs.; ISBN: 978-039546732.
This softcover guide has an effective and easy-to-use key, useful for the beginning student. The book covers trees only--no shrubs or other small woody plants.
A Field Guide to Trees and Shrubs: Northeastern and north-central United States and southeastern and south-central Canada (Peterson Field Guides); George A. Petrides; Second edition, 2008; Houghton Mifflin Harcourt; 464 pgs.; ISBN: 9780395353707.
This softcover guide has the advantage of including shrubs and woody vines as well as trees. There are accounts of 646 species, with details on shape and arrangement of leaves, height, color, bark texture, flowering season, and fruit. Drawings of leaves, flowers, buds, tree silhouettes, and other characteristics.
Trees of the Eastern and Central United States and Canada; William M. Harlow; 1957; Dover Publications, New York; 320 pgs.; ISBN: 978-0486203959.
Although centered on New York State, this book has a very thorough key that usually gets you to the right place. It is organized by family, so once you're familiar with the basic groups of trees (oak, birch, etc.) you can easily locate the species. Unlike most other field guides, it is very readable, with interesting and entertaining information, including historical background on uses of the trees. Good photos of leaf, bark, flowers, and fruit. It includes some shrubs and small trees. Some southern species that are found in Maryland are missing. Very inexpensive and compact enough to fit easily in a pocket.
Fall Color and Woodland Harvests: A Guide to the More Colorful Fall Leaves and Fruits of the Eastern Forests; C. Ritchie Bell and Anne H. Lindsey; New edition, 2007; University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill, NC; 184 pgs.; ISBN: 978-0960868810.
A paperback that can fit in a large pocket. It has a key appropriate to the autumn. The trees included are almost all found in Maryland. If you learn them, you'll know most of our native tree species. Superb photographs aid in identification year round because it's easy mentally to substitute green for the fall color.
Native Shrubs and Woody Vines of the Southeast; Leonard Foote and Samuel Jones; 2005; Timber Press, Portland, OR; 255 pgs.; ISBN: 978-0881924169.
This identification guide presents plant descriptions for 550 species and 79 plant families, with keys and photographs. (Note: For more information on vines, see resources listed for MNPS' Year of the Vines, 2015; link on main webpage, www.mdflora.org.)
Trees of Eastern North America (Princeton Field Guide); Gil Nelson, Christopher J. Earle, and Richard Spellenberg; 2014; Princeton University Press, Princeton and Oxford; 720 pgs.; ISBN: 978-0-691-14591-4.
Comprehensive, with illustrated leaf and twig keys. Softcover, but too large to carry conveniently in the field, like a number of the other recent plant field guides. This is a well illustrated, useful reference book.
Field Guide to Trees of North America (National Wildlife Federation); Bruce Kershner et al.; 2008; Sterling Publishing Co., New York; 528 pgs.; ISBN: 978-1402738753.
Comprehensive guide, with many color illustrations and useful keys. A good value for the money. Softcover but too thick to carry conveniently in the field. A good reference book.
The Sibley Guide to Trees; David Allen Sibley; 2009; Knopf, New York; 426 pgs.; ISBN: 978-0375415197.
Beautifully illustrated with color paintings by the author, and full of good information, though it lacks a dichotomous key. Too large to carry conveniently in the field.
Trees of Pennsylvania: A Complete Reference Guide; Ann Fowler Rhoads and Timothy A. Block; 2004; University of Pennsylvania Press; 416 pgs.; ISBN: 978-0-8122-3785-6.
This book covers all 195 of Pennsylvania’s trees, native and naturalized. Many of the same species occur in Maryland.
Field Guide to Native Oak Species of Eastern North America; John Stein, Denise Binion, and Robert Acciavatti; 2003; USDA Forest Service, Forest Health Technology Enterprise Team; 172 pgs.; ISBN: 978-1470112363. Out of print. 8.4 M pdf: http://www.fs.fed.us/foresthealth/technology/pdfs/fieldguide.pdf
This spiral-bound book is well illustrated, with easy-to-view range maps and well-done drawings and photos of plant parts. It is a shame that the book is out of print, but fortunately an online version is available. (Note: For more information on oaks, see the resources listed for MNPS' Year of the Oak, 2012, accessed via main web page, www.mdflora.org.)
Silvics of North America. 1990. Vol. 1: Conifers; Vol. 2: Hardwoods. USDA Forest Service Agriculture Handbook 654. [Supersedes Silvics of Forest Trees of the U.S.] http://www.na.fs.fed.us/spfo/pubs/silvics_manual/table_of_contents.htm.
This is not an identification guide, but is a useful reference aimed at the forester or professional tree grower. It provides detailed information on each species' habitat, range, climate, soils and topography, associated forest cover, life history, and growth.
Bark: A Field Guide to Trees of the Northeast; Michael Wojtech; 2011; UPNE (University Press of New England); 280 pgs; ISBN: 978-1584658528.
Fruit Key & Twig Key to Trees and Shrubs; William M. Harlow; 1959; Dover Publications, Inc., New York; 126 pgs.; ISBN: 978-0486205113.
This book includes a section on how bark is formed and a discussion of possible advantages of different kinds of bark. Has detailed keys and descriptions, and excellent photos.
This older but still very useful publication has two keys: The fruit key is for northeastern trees and the twig key for deciduous woody plants of eastern North America. Illustrated with photographs, which are very helpful. This is the only guide of its sort, and very useful to carry in winter. Too large for a regular pocket, but slender and lightweight, so will fit easily in a large pocket or a backpack.
Master Tree Finder: A Manual for the Identification of Trees by Their Leaves; May Theilgaard Watts; 1963; Nature Study Guild Publishers; 58 pgs.; ISBN: 978-0912550015.
This small, pocket-size guide (one of the "Finders" series) consists of an elementary, dichotomous key that leads step-by-step through a series of choices to the species being identified. The book can be useful, although the number of species covered is limited. Includes simple illustrations and range maps.
Winter Tree Finder: A Manual for Identifying Deciduous Trees in Winter; May Theilgaard Watts and Tom Watts;1970; Nature Study Guild Publishers, Rochester, New York; 58 pgs.; ISBN: 978-0912550039.
This small, pocket-size guide (in the "Finders" series) consists of a an elementary, dichotomous key, which leads step-by-step through a series of choices to the species being identified. The book is useful in winter, although the number of species covered is limited. Includes simple drawings and range maps.
Berry Finder: A Guide to Native Plants with Fleshy Fruits for Eastern North America; Dorcas S. Miller; 1986; Second Edition 2015; Wilderness Press; 64 pgs.; ISBN: 978-0912550312.
This small, pocket-sized book (in the "Finders" series) will help you identify plants having fleshy fruit 1 inch or less in diameter. The book calls all fleshy fruits "berries," whether they are drupes, pomes, accessory fruits, aggregates, or true berries. Both woody and herbaceous plants are included. As with the other books in the "Finders" series, the number of species covered is limited. In addition to native species, the book includes some escaped, cultivated species. Has line drawings, no range maps.
Common Native Trees of Virginia: Tree Identification Guide; Virginia Department of Forestry; 2007; 128 pgs.
Available inexpensively from the Virginia Department of Forestry: http://www.dof.virginia.gov/shop/index-books.htm. You can also download it for free from that site. The number of species included in the book is limited. The descriptions are non-technical, and there are images of leaves, twigs, flowers and/or fruit.
Illustrated Guide to Trees and Shrubs: A Handbook of the Woody Plants of the Northeastern United States and Adjacent regions; Arthur Harmount Graves; Revised edition, 1956; Harper & Row, Publishers, New York and other cities; Revised edition, Dover Publications, 2011; 288 pgs.; ISBN: 978-0486272580.
Although an older guide, this book is quite useful, especially as a back-up to other woody-plant reference guides. It has both summer and winter keys, and is nicely illustrated with line drawings that include buds and leaf scars for some species. Hardcover and too large to fit in a regular-size pocket, although light enough in weight to be carried easily in a large pocket or a backpack.
The Tree Identification Book: A New Method for the Practical Identification and Recognition of Trees; George W. D Symonds; 1958; reissued 1973; William Morrow & Co., New York; 272 pgs.; ISBN: 978-0688050399.
This older, large-format book is not for carrying in the field, but its large photographic illustrations can be very helpful in identifying tree species. The book is in two parts: Pictorial Keys to thorns, leaves, flowers, fruit, twigs, and bark; and Master Pages. The Keys help you compare structural details that look alike, helping narrow identification to one of a small group--the family or genus. In the Master Pages, details from the pictorial keys are placed together to highlight differences within the family group, thus helping you eliminate possibilities within that group. This book is a companion volume to the following book:
The Shrub Identification Book: The Visual Method for the Practical Identification of Shrubs, including Woody Vines and Ground Covers; George W. D Symonds; 1963; reissued 1973; William Morrow & Co., New York; 379 pgs.; ISBN: 978-0688050405.
This older, large-format book is not for carrying in the field, but its large, photographic illustrations can be very helpful in identifying shrubs, woody vines, and ground covers. The book is in two parts: Pictorial Keys to thorns, leaves, flowers, fruit, twigs, and bark; and Master Pages. The Pictorial Keys help you compare structural details that look alike, helping narrow identification to one of a small group--the family or genus. In the Master Pages, details from the pictorial keys are placed together to highlight differences within the family group, thus helping you eliminate possibilities within that group. A companion volume to the preceding book.
Newcomb's Wildflower Guide; Lawrence Newcomb; 1989; Little Brown & Co.; 490 pgs.; ISBN: 978-0316604420.
Highly Recommended - Probably the best book for carrying around on a day hike when the larger books will weigh you down. Very good for general use, and even includes some woody species. It has an easy-to-use key that is good for many common, and some not-so-common, species. You will always find the Genus but an exact species identification can in some cases be difficult. This book makes a clear distinction between native and alien species. The paperback version is tough enough to last for many years.
A Field Guide to Wildflowers: Northeastern and North-Central North America (Peterson Field Guides); Margaret McKenny and Roger Tory Peterson; 1998; Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, Boston; 448 pgs.; ISBN: 978-0395911723.
Highly Recommended - A good book for the beginning student. Some people find the key this book uses for identification to be counter-intuitive. The book makes a clear distinction between native and alien species.
Herbaceous Plants of Maryland; Melvin L. Brown and Russell G. Brown; 1984; Port City Press, Baltimore, MD; 1127 pgs.; ISBN: 0-3956-2881-4
Highly Recommended - This is the definitive source for identification of herbaceous plants in Maryland. It is not simple to use but the key will get you to a definite identification. It is a thick, hard-cover volume, too large to carry conveniently in the field. The book includes the flowering vascular plants plus ferns, grasses, sedges, and rushes, but excludes woody plants and mosses.
National Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Wildflowers--E: Eastern Region; Revised 2001 by John W. Thieret; Knopf, New York City; 896 pgs.; ISBN: 978-0375402326. .
Appropriate for the beginning student. It has beautiful color photographs (which can be worth pages of descriptive text).
A Guide to Wildflowers in Winter: Herbaceous Plants of Northeastern North America; Carol Levine; 1995; Yale University Press; 344 pgs.; ISBN: 978-0300065602.
This book has an unusual key that does not depend on either flowers or foliage. If you have a general idea what the plant might be, the line drawings will help you identify it. The book does not distinguish between native and alien species.
National Wildlife Federation Field Guide to Wildflowers of North America; David M. Brandenburg; 2010; Sterling Publishing Co., New York; 673 pgs.; ISBN: 978-1-4027-4154-8.
This comprehensive, detailed book includes range maps and numerous color-photo illustrations, which, though small in size, can be quite helpful. Good value for the money. It is softcover, but too thick to carry in a pocket.
Flower Finder: A Guide to Identification of Spring Wild Flowers and Flower Families East of the Rockies and North of the Smokies, Exclusive of Trees and Shrubs (Nature Study Guides); May Theilgaard Watts; 1955; Nature Study Guild Publishers, Rochester, New York; 60 pgs; ISBN:
Pocket-sized field guide (in the "Finders" series). Working through the elementary, dichotomous key will lead first to the family, then the species. The book can be useful, although the number of species covered is limited. Includes simple illustrations, but no range maps.Berry Finder: A Guide to Native Plants with Fleshy Fruits for Eastern North America; Dorcas S. Miller; 1986; Second Edition 2015; Wilderness Press; 64 pgs.; ISBN: 978-0912550312.
This small, pocket-sized book will help you identify plants having fleshy fruit 1 inch or less in diameter. The book calls all fleshy fruits "berries," whether they are drupes, pomes, accessory fruits, aggregates, or true berries. Both woody and herbaceous plants are included. As with the other books in the "Finders" series, the number of species covered is limited. In addition to native species, the book includes some escaped, cultivated species. Has line drawings, no range maps.Winter Weed Finder: A Guide to Dry Plants in Winter; Dorcas S. Miller; 1989; Nature Study Guild Publishers, Rochester, New York; 64 pgs; ISBN: 978-0912550176.
This pocket-sized guide (in the "Finders" series) is an elementary, dichotomous key for identifying non-woody plants in late fall and winter by the dried structures that remain, such as pods, dried flower heads, seed capsules, and burrs. Includes common native and escaped cultivated herbs, and native ferns. Area covered is the upper Midwest and eastern United States north of South Carolina, and eastern Canada. Illustrated with simple line drawings. No range maps.
Grasses of Washington, D.C.; Kamal M. Ibrahim, Paul M. Peterson; 2014; Smithsonian Contributions to Botany No. 99, Smithsonian Institution Scholarly Press; 139 pgs.; ISSN: 0081-024X (print); 1938-2812 (online). Online version accessible through: http://opensi.si.edu/index.php/smithsonian/catalog/book/66.
A vegetative key, descriptions, and illustrations for the identification of 182 native and naturalized grasses that occur in Washington, D.C. A glossary of terms and indexes to scientific and common names is provided. The key is based on vegetative characters to allow identification primarily of specimens that do not have flowering structures (inflorescences and spikelets).
Agnes Chase's First Book of Grasses: The Structure of Grasses Explained for Beginners; Agnes Chase, Lynn G. Clark, and Richard W. Pohl; 1996; Smithsonian Institution Press; 162 pgs.; ISBN: 978-1560986560.
This is the latest edition of a botanical classic first published in 1922. The book addresses the complexity of grasses in twelve lessons, providing a good way to gain a basic understanding of grass taxonomy. Each grass type is illustrated by detailed line drawings. The first chapter surveys basic vegetative and reproductive parts, and the remaining eleven lessons describe increasingly complex spikelet and inflorescence varieties, including the taxonomic context and structure. This book is dense and has chapters with titles such as "Paired Spikelets with Hardened Glumes and Membranaceous Lemmas" but it is a good background for those intending to answer the questions found in most grass identification keys.
Field Guide to the Grasses, Sedges and Rushes of the United States; Edward Knobel; 1977; Dover Publications; 96 pgs .; ISBN: 978-0486235059.
This small, compact field guide holds a wealth of information. It uses a remarkably easy key based on the general appearance of the inflorescence, which can usually lead to a quick identification of the plant. The book is good for field use, but for a definite species identification, it should be supplemented with a more sophisticated taxonomic guide.
Grasses: An Identification Guide; Lauren Brown; 1992; Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Co.; 256 pgs.; ISBN: 978-0395628812.
This guide is focused primarily on grasses of the northeastern United States, many of which are also found in the mid-Atlantic region. Grasses can be hard to identify, and this book can help botanical amateurs identify the common ones. The book provides little detail about ecology of the species, however.
A Field Guide to Ferns and Their Related Families: Northeastern and Central North America (Peterson Field Guides); Boughton Cobb; second edition, 2005; Houghton Mifflin; 417 pgs.; ISBN: 0618394060
Recommended - This fern ID book, like all the Peterson field guides, is small enough to carry easily. It has an effective key based on various aspects of the fern, including the leaf shape. The key will usually point you to the right part of the book and, with a bit of paging, you will be able to identify most common, and some not-so-common, ferns.
Guide to Eastern Ferns; Edgar Theodore Wherry; Second edition, reprint, 1948; University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia; 255 pgs.
This classic is out of print. It covers the identification of the ferns and fern-allies of the region from Pennsylvania and New Jersey to Virginia.
An Illustrated Guide to the Ferns and Fern Allies of Shenandoah National Park, Virginia; Peter M. Mazzeo; 1972; Shenandoah Natural History Association, Inc., Luray, Virginia; 52 pgs.
Although limited to the ferns of Shenandoah National Park, this guide provides a good starting point for the non-expert because it includes many of the ferns that are common in our region, and has good illustrations. The book is thin and softcover, but has too large a format to fit conveniently into a pocket. It is available very inexpensively in the visitor-center shops along Skyline Drive.
Fern Finder: A Guide to Native Ferns of Central and Northeastern United States and Canada (Nature Study Guides); Anne C. Hallowell and Barbara G. Hallowell; 2001; Second edition; Nature Study Guild Publishers, Rochester, New York; 64 pgs.; ISBN: 978-0912550244.
Like other plant guides in the "Finders" series, "Fern Finder" is a small, pocket-size book, easily carried in the field. It is an elementary dichotomous key, which leads the user step-by-step through a series of choices to the species being identified. Heavily illustrated with line drawings, and includes range maps.
Common Mosses of the Northeast and Appalachians (Princeton Field Guides); Karl B. McKnight, Joseph R. Rohrer, Kirsten McKnight Ward, and Warren J. Perdrizet; 2013; Princeton University Press; 392 pgs.; ISBN: 978-0691156965.
Recommended. This is a good book for the beginner. It contains a color-tabbed system that helps readers pick out small groups of similar species. It has illustrated identification keys, and colorful habitat and leaf photos, plus many detailed line drawings and written descriptions, to help differentiate species.
Maryland Bryophytes Collected by Elmer G. Worthley; Edward Uebel (editor); 2000; Maryland Native Plant Society. MNPS has copies available for sale; for more information or to download a pdf, see Maryland Bryophytes Collected by Elmer G. Worthley.
The purpose of this manuscript is to preserve as much pertinent information about Maryland mosses as possible, so that future Maryland bryologists will have some knowledge about which mosses have been found in Maryland, their abundance, location, habitats, and associations. Dr. Worthley's herbarium contained 15 collections of hornworts, representing 4 species; 1138 collections of mosses representing 191 species; and 291 collections of hepatics representing 56 species. His entire collection is now in the Missouri Botanical Garden.
Mosses and Other Bryophytes: An Illustrated Glossary; Bill Malcolm and Nancy Malcolm; 2000; Timber Press; 226 pgs.; ISBN: 978-0473067304 .
This glossary briefly defines the botanical terms likely to be used in the descriptions of mosses and other bryophytes, and is illustrated with more than 900 photographs taken at various levels of magnification, mostly using a microscope, that reveal the details of structure in nearly 400 mosses, liverworts, and hornworts.
Non-flowering Plants (A Golden Guide); Floyd S. Shuttleworth and Herbert S. Zim; 1967; Golden Press, New York; Western Publishing Co., Inc., Racine, Wisconsin; 160 pgs.; ISBN: 978-0307240149.
A small gem of a book, very compact and easy to carry. Covers the common species of algae, fungi, lichens, mosses, liverworts and hornworts, ferns and fern allies, and gymnosperms. The title is now a misnomer, because algae and fungi are no longer considered plants, but having these organisms included in this small volume is convenient. The illustrations are very helpful, and there are general descriptions for each major group of organisms. This is a good place to start when trying to identify a specimen; you may need to consult a more specialized guide for a definite identification.
Flora of Virginia; Alan S. Weakley, J. Christopher Ludwig, and John F. Townsend; 2012; Botanical Research Institute of Texas; 1572 pgs.; ISBN: 978-1889878386. You can order a copy from The Flora of Virginia Project
This large, comprehensive volume, many years in the making, is the new go-to book for the dedicated student of regional flora. The keys and descriptions are technical, so you will need some knowledge of basic botanical terminology.
Annotated Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Washington - Baltimore Area; Stanwyn G. Shetler and Sylvia Stone Orli; Department of Botany, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. In two parts: Part I: Ferns, Fern Allies, Gymnosperms, and Dicotyledons; 2000; 204 pgs. (600 KB pdf version); Part II: Monocotyledons; 2002; 95 pgs. (http://botany.si.edu/dcflora/Checklist/Checklistpt2.pdf)
This two-volume set is comprehensive for the area covered, listing the locations where each species has been documented (i.e., Maryland, District of Columbia, northern Virginia). Identifies alien versus native status.
The Flora of North America; Flora of North America Editorial Committee, eds. 1993+; Flora of North America North of Mexico. 12+ vols. New York and Oxford.
This very comprehensive resource, which is a work-in-progress, is viewable on-line at http://www.fna.org/.
Woody Plants of Maryland; Russell G. Brown and Melvin L. Brown; 1972; Port City Press, Baltimore, MD; 347 pgs.
Highly Recommended - This is the definitive source for identification of woody plants in Maryland. It is not simple to use but the key will get you to the correct identification. Too large for most people to carry conveniently in the field.
Herbaceous Plants of Maryland; Russell G. Brown and Melvin L. Brown; 1964; Port City Press, Baltimore, MD. 1127 pgs.; ISBN: 0-3956-2881-4.
Highly Recommended - This companion volume to Brown and Brown’s “Woody Plants of Maryland” is the definitive source for identification of herbaceous plants in Maryland. It is not simple to use but the key will get you to the correct identification. Too large to carry conveniently in the field.
Manual of Vascular Plants of the Northeastern United States and Adjacent Canada; Henry A. Gleason and Arthur Cronquist; 2nd edition, 1991; New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, NY; 910 pgs.; ISBN: 978-0893273651.
A very comprehensive identification guide. This is considered by some to be the definitive identification book for plants of this geographical region.
Illustrated Companion to Gleason and Cronquist's Manual: Illustrations of the Vascular Plants of the Northeastern United States and Adjacent Canada; Noel Holmgren, Patricia K. Holmgren, and Henry A. Gleason; New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, NY; 937 pgs.; ISBN: 978-0893273996 .
Although a bit pricey, this book is a very useful reference. It consists of 827 plates containing black and white illustrations arranged and labeled to cross-reference with Gleason and Cronquist's 1991 edition. It also contains useful diagnostic details not previously presented.
Gray's Manual of Botany: A Handbook of Flowering Plants and Ferns of the Central and Northeastern United States and Adjacent Canada; Merritt Lyndon Fernald; 8th edition, 1950; 1632 pgs.; American Book Company, New York and other cities.
Some botanists consider this book the finest resource available, despite its date. Out of print at this time but used copies are generally available. Illustrations are very limited, consisting only of small line drawings for some species.
The Plants of Pennsylvania: An Illustrated Manual; Ann Fowler Rhoads and Timothy A. Block; 2007; University of Pennsylvania Press; 1056 pgs.; ISBN: 978-0812240030.
Developed in conjunction with the Pennsylvania Flora Database project and compiled by botanists at Pennsylvania's Morris Arboretum, this guide is helpful for identifying the more than 3,000 species of ferns and fern allies, gymnosperms, dicots, and monocots that are both native and naturalized in the state. Includes keys to families, genera, and species; extensive black and white diagnostic illustrations; and data on distribution ranges, relative frequency, rare and endangered species, blooming and fruiting periods, taxonomic notes, and an illustrated glossary.
Atlas of the Virginia Flora; Alton McCaleb Harvill, et al.; 1977, 1981, 1992; Virginia Botanical Associates, Farmville and Burkeville, VA; This publication is out of print, but a digital version is available at: http://vaplantatlas.org/.
This is a very helpful resource for determining whether a plant is likely to be in the area you are interested in. It is especially useful if you are in a Maryland county bordering Virginia.
Flora of West Virginia; P.D. Strausbaugh and Earl Core; 1978; Seneca Books, Morgantown, WV; 1119 pgs.; ISBN: 978-0890920107
An excellent resource, packed with information and useful line drawings. It is especially helpful for identifying plants in the mountainous parts of our region.
Guide to the Vascular Plants of the Blue Ridge; B. Eugene Wofford; 1989; University of Georgia Press; 400 pgs.; ISBN:978-0820324555.
Manual of the Vascular Flora of the Carolinas; Albert E. Radford, Harry E. Ahles, and C. Ritchie Bell; University of North Carolina Press; 1245 pgs.; ISBN: 978-0807810873.
A useful reference; it includes many plants that also occur in Maryland.
An Illustrated Flora of the Northern United States and Canada; Nathaniel Lord Britton and Addison Brown; 1913; C. Scribner’s Sons, New York; Reprinted 1970, Dover Publications, New York; three volumes; ISBNs: Vol. I: 978-0486226422; Vol. II: 978-0486226439; Vol. III: 978-0486226446 . All three volumes are available online at: http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/bibliography/940#/summary.
This three-volume, comprehensive work is a classic, still useful although taxonomy has changed much since it was published.